Importance of Proper Disinfection and Sterilization Against HIV, Viruses and Safe Disposal of Disposable Surgical Equipment



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I am Akhtiar Ahmed Solangi and I have been diligently applying these techniques and protocols for the prevention of HIV transmission in my role at Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre (JPMC) in Karachi since 23 years Working at the hospital has provided me with firsthand experience in implementing the infection control measures described below, Through my dedicated efforts, I have consistently ensured the proper use of personal protective equipment (PPE), adherence to sterilization procedures, and the appropriate application of disinfectants such as sodium hypochlorite and alcohol-based solutions.

In alignment with the guidelines established by healthcare authorities and infection control experts, my commitment to safeguarding the well-being of both patients and healthcare providers has been unwavering.
The utilization of these techniques has been integral in maintaining a safe and hygienic environment within our medical setting, As I continue to contribute to the health and safety of our patients, colleagues, and community, I remain dedicated to staying informed about the latest advancements in infection control practices and implementing them effectively.

What is HIV?
HIV stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus. It’s a virus that attacks the immune system, weakening the body’s ability to fight off infections and diseases. If left untreated, HIV can lead to a condition called AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome), which is the final stage of HIV infection. Effective medical treatments known as antiretroviral therapy (ART) can help control the virus and prevent its progression to AIDS.

Evolution of HIV?
The earliest known case of HIV infection was retrospectively identified from a blood sample collected in 1959 in the Democratic Republic of Congo (formerly known as Zaire). This sample was analyzed in the 1980s, and it provided evidence of HIV’s presence in humans before the recognized emergence of the AIDS pandemic in the early 1980s. It’s important to note that while this is the earliest documented case, HIV likely existed in humans and primates before that time. The virus crossed into humans from non-human primates, and its transmission and spread evolved over decades.

Is HIV Virus dead in air?
HIV is a fragile virus and dies within seconds when exposed to light and air. HIV can only be transmitted through direct contact with blood, semen, vaginal fluid, rectal fluid, or breast milk.

How long does HIV live on a syringe/needle?
This is because the needles, syringes, or other injection equipment may have blood in them, and blood can carry HIV. HIV can survive in a used syringe for up to 42 days, depending on temperature and other factors. Substance use disorder can also increase the risk of getting HIV through sex.

How well does HIV survive outside the body? Scientists and medical authorities agree that HIV does not survive well outside the body, making the possibility of environmental transmission remote. HIV is found in varying concentrations or amounts in blood, semen, vaginal fluid, breast milk, saliva, and tears.

Can HIV blood survive on a Towel?
HIV is primarily transmitted through direct contact with certain body fluids, such as blood, semen, vaginal fluids, rectal fluids, and breast milk, from a person who is already infected with the virus. While the virus can survive outside the body for a short period, the risk of HIV transmission through casual contact or environmental surfaces is extremely low.

The likelihood of transmitting HIV through a towel is considered negligible for a few reasons:
• Low Viral Load: The concentration of HIV in the blood of someone who is on effective antiretroviral treatment is usually very low, reducing the risk of transmission.
• Air and Environment Exposure: HIV is sensitive to environmental conditions and doesn’t survive for long outside the body. It’s important to note that even if HIV were to come into contact with a surface like a towel, it would quickly become inactive and unable to cause infection.
• Transmission Pathways: HIV transmission generally requires direct access to the bloodstream, which is not easily achieved through contact with intact skin or mucous membranes.
However, to ensure safety and minimize any potential risks:
• If you have open cuts or sores: It’s always a good practice to avoid contact with potentially infectious fluids, including blood, regardless of the surface. If you have open cuts or sores, it’s wise to take precautions.
• Towel Sharing: While the risk of HIV transmission through towel sharing is negligible, it’s still a good hygiene practice to avoid sharing personal items that might come into contact with bodily fluids.
• Hand Hygiene: Practicing proper hand hygiene by washing your hands with soap and water after handling items that might have come into contact with blood or other bodily fluids is always a good preventive measure.
Remember that HIV is not easily transmitted through casual contact or environmental surfaces. It’s primarily spread through specific activities that involve the exchange of certain bodily fluids. If you have concerns about HIV transmission or are looking for accurate information, consulting with a healthcare professional or a trusted source of medical information is recommended.

Can HIV blood and HIV fluid survive on floor?
HIV is a fragile virus that cannot survive for long outside the human body. Once outside the body, HIV is quickly inactivated and becomes unable to cause infection. The virus is sensitive to environmental conditions such as temperature, humidity, and exposure to air.

HIV-infected blood or fluids, if they were to come into contact with a surface like a floor, would not remain infectious for an extended period. The virus would rapidly lose its ability to cause infection. The risk of HIV transmission from contact with contaminated surfaces like floors is considered extremely low.

It’s important to rely on accurate and up-to-date information about HIV transmission. The virus is primarily spread through direct contact with specific body fluids, including blood, semen, vaginal fluids, rectal fluids, and breast milk, from an infected person. Activities such as unprotected sexual intercourse, sharing needles or syringes, and from mother to child during childbirth or breastfeeding can transmit the virus.

In everyday scenarios, there is virtually no risk of HIV transmission from contact with surfaces like floors or other environmental objects. Simple hygiene practices such as regular handwashing and avoiding direct contact with potentially infectious fluids are generally sufficient to minimize any hypothetical risks. If you have specific concerns or questions about HIV transmission, it’s always a good idea to consult a healthcare professional or trusted medical sources.

Can HIV virus spread during surgery?
The risk of HIV transmission during surgery is extremely low due to the stringent infection control measures and precautions that are in place in healthcare settings. Modern healthcare facilities follow strict protocols to prevent the transmission of HIV and other bloodborne pathogens during surgical procedures.
Here are some key factors that contribute to the low risk of HIV transmission during surgery:
• Universal Precautions: Healthcare workers follow universal precautions, which involve treating all blood and body fluids as potentially infectious. This means they use protective barriers (gloves, masks, gowns, goggles) and follow strict hygiene practices to prevent contact with potentially infectious materials.
• Sterilization and Disinfection: Surgical instruments and equipment are thoroughly sterilized and disinfected before use to eliminate any potential pathogens, including HIV.
• Single-Use Equipment: Disposable instruments and single-use devices are commonly used during surgeries to further minimize the risk of cross-contamination.
• Strict Blood Safety Protocols: Blood transfusions and other blood-related procedures follow rigorous safety protocols to prevent HIV transmission.
• Healthcare Worker Training: Healthcare professionals are trained in infection control practices, including preventing the spread of bloodborne diseases.
• Patient Screening: Patients are often screened for HIV and other bloodborne infections before surgery, allowing healthcare providers to take appropriate precautions.
• Post-Exposure Prophylaxis (PEP): In rare cases of accidental exposure to blood or body fluids, healthcare workers may be offered post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) to prevent the potential transmission of HIV.
It’s important to note that while the risk of HIV transmission during surgery is exceedingly low, healthcare providers take every possible measure to ensure patient and staff safety. If you have concerns about the safety of surgical procedures or the transmission of HIV, it’s recommended to discuss these concerns with your healthcare provider.

What surgical equipments should be used to prevent hiv during surgery?
To prevent the transmission of HIV and other bloodborne pathogens during surgery, healthcare providers follow strict infection control protocols and use a range of specialized equipment and attire. Here’s an overview of the surgical equipment and attire commonly used to prevent HIV transmission:
• Personal Protective Equipment (PPE):
• Gloves: Healthcare providers wear disposable gloves to protect their hands from contact with blood and body fluids.
• Masks and Eye Protection: Masks and eye protection (goggles or face shields) are used to prevent splashes of blood or other fluids from reaching the face.
• Gowns: Disposable gowns or protective clothing are worn to cover the body and prevent contamination of clothing.
• Surgical Attire:
• Surgical Caps: Caps cover the hair and scalp to prevent contamination of the surgical area.
• Shoe Covers: Shoe covers help prevent the spread of contaminants from the operating room floor.
• Respiratory Protection:
• N95 Respirators: In some situations, where there is a risk of exposure to airborne particles, healthcare workers may use N95 respirators for respiratory protection.
• Surgical Instruments and Equipment:
• Single-Use Instruments: Whenever possible, disposable single-use instruments are used to prevent cross-contamination.
• Sterilization: Reusable instruments are thoroughly sterilized using autoclaves or other approved methods before use.
• Needlestick Prevention:
• Safety Needles: Safety-engineered needles and devices with mechanisms to prevent needlestick injuries are used to minimize the risk of accidental exposure.
• Blood Safety:
• Blood Transfusion Protocol: Strict protocols are followed for blood transfusions, including proper blood typing and screening to prevent transmission of bloodborne infections like HIV.
• Hand Hygiene:
• Handwashing: Proper handwashing with soap and water or using hand sanitizers before and after patient contact and after glove removal is a fundamental practice.
• Waste Disposal:
• Biohazard Containers: Used gloves, gowns, and other disposable items are placed in biohazard containers to prevent the spread of infectious materials.
• Operating Room Environment:
• Cleanliness: Operating rooms are kept clean and sanitized to provide a sterile environment for surgery.
• Patient Screening:
• Preoperative Assessment: Patients are screened for infectious diseases, including HIV, to inform appropriate precautions.
• Post-Exposure Prophylaxis (PEP):
• Emergency Medication: In case of accidental exposure to blood or body fluids, healthcare workers may be offered post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) to prevent potential transmission of HIV.

1) Martin and McDougal using the ID-50 immunoassay and ELISA, reported that HIV was inactivated by .3% hydrogen peroxide, 50% ethanol, .5% paraformaldehyde, .5% Lysol® (a proprietary mixture of phenolics and surfactants), and .1% household bleach (52.5 ppm NaOCl). Over time, many laboratories have performed inactivation studies with various compounds . Sattar summarized the results of many of these experiments . The predicted susceptibility of HIV to a vary wide variety of chemical disinfectants was confirmed.
Inactivation with NaOCl has been investigated in many laboratories. HIV inactivation has been studied for HIV in both the liquid and dried states. A range of dilutions of bleach and/or varying concentrations of serum or blood was not always tested in each laboratory. The concentrations of NaOCl reported to inactivate cell-free HIV ranged from a minimum of 52.5 ppm to 5000 ppm. The presence of blood or 50% serum increased the amount of available chlorine (Cl) required for complete inactivation.

2) Ingraham wrote that the chlorine compounds are the most misunderstood and consequently the most abused disinfectants. Chlorine compounds can provide high degrees of disinfection. Chlorine works quickly as a bactericidal agent although its action is not fully understood. The toxicity can be due to a variety of factors including the pH, Cl ions, protein denaturation, nucleic acid inactivations, and oxidizing properties Klein and Deforest reported that all of 25 viruses tested were inactivated in 10 minutes by a solution containing 0.02 % available chlorine . Available chlorine is a measurement of the total chlorine oxidizing potential in a given solution. Chlorine demand refers to the amount of Cl that is needed to react with impurities, both inorganic and organic. After this demand is met, any additional Cl is residual available Cl. Chlorine’s disinfection ability is determined by the concentration of free and available chlorine in the solution. This is affected by the temperature, the presence of organic material, the pH, and the hardness of the water. Chlorine compounds usability may be limited by the corrosiveness and instability.

Serum proteins and other organic material in blood will react when mixed with chlorine compounds and reduce the chlorine available for microbial inactivation. For example, before using chlorine to clean up a blood spill, it is necessary to remove as much of the visible blood as possible with absorbent material. After this cleaning, material is appropriately discarded, the spill site may then be disinfected with bleach or other chlorine product. CDC recommends a 1:100 dilution of household bleach for cleaning blood-contaminated environmental surfaces that have been previously cleaned of visible material The underlying principle is to remove as much of the organic material prior to using a Cl compound for disinfection.

The presence of infected cells in blood should also be considered when developing an inactivation protocol. Flynn reported that whole blood is protective against disinfection of HIV. There was a step-wise increasing resistance to disinfection as the in vivo situation was approached. That is, susceptibility to inactivation increased with cell-free HIV being the most sensitive, followed by cell associated, with cell-associated in blood being the most resistant. Dilute household bleach, 70% isopropyl alcohols and dilute liquid dish detergent were the most active of the tested disinfectants. Most experiments done with HIV-infected cells have focused on the testing of chemicals such as formaldehyde used to fix cells (both separated cells and in whole blood) for flow-cytometry and other laboratory procedures.

3) Moore reported that HIV infected cells were inactivated in water, but this inactivation was not rapid. There was a 10-fold loss within 1 hour of tap-water exposure and a 100-fold loss after 8 hours. Attempts were also made to recover virus after the introduction of HIV-contaminated blood into tap water. Seropositive blood was diluted to a final total volume of 1 and 2 %. No virus was recovered after 1 minute in the 1% vol/vol experiment and after 5 minutes in the 2% vol/vol experiment.

4) Newmeyer examined the transmission of HIV under simulated conditions of sharing of hypodermic equipment by intravenous drug users (IVDU). Hypodermic equipment was exposed to cell-free HIV in tissue culture medium and attempts were made to culture virus after different conditions of exposure. Viable HIV was cultured from the following conditions: contaminated needle and syringe left for an interval of 1 minute, exterior of needle exposed and left for 15 seconds, and decontamination twice with water. Viable HIV was not recovered from equipment under the following conditions: contaminated needle and syringe left for 60 minutes and decontamination once or twice with bleach. The researchers concluded that decontamination by bleach rinsing, but not water alone, appeared to be efficacious. Caution should be used in interpreting these experiments since whole blood was not tested.

As indicated, there are other disinfectants such as glutaraldehyde compounds, detergents, iodine, quaternary ammonium compounds, and alcohols which have been shown to inactivate HIV under certain conditions. Selection of another disinfectant, rather than NaOCl, to recommend for disinfection of needles and syringes designed for single use must take into consideration, ease of use, toxicity, effect on syringe and needle, disinfection capability in the presence of blood, and many other factors.

It is not surprising that the use of bleach for disinfection for syringes and needles contaminated with blood may not result in complete inactivation of cell-free HIV. The presence of organic material such as blood, liquid or dried, the absence of precleaning or rinsing with water, and the difficulty of cleaning a device not designed for reuse are all complicating factors. There is also the difficulty of documenting the effectiveness of disinfection strategies for IVDUs. Siegel found that the greatest life-year savings were in areas of low HIV prevalence.

Clearly, the first course of action for drug users who are injecting drugs is to always use a sterile, never used needle and syringe obtained from a reliable source such as a pharmacy. This is the only safe recommendation for injecting drug users who cannot or will not stop injecting drugs. Disinfection procedures can reduce the amount of HIV or HIV-infected cells present in the injecting equipment, but can not guarantee complete inactivation every time.

High Level Disinfection by Boiling HIV instrument?
A high level of disinfection is achieved when instruments are boiled for 30 minutes. This is the simplest method for inactivating most pathogenic microbes including HIV, Hepatitis B and bacteria, but not spores.

Autoclave Sterilization Duration for HIV instrument?
The duration for autoclaving instruments to ensure effective sterilization can vary depending on factors such as the type of autoclave, the specific instrument being sterilized, and the autoclave settings being used. Autoclaving is a common method for sterilizing surgical instruments, including those that might come into contact with blood or body fluids, in order to prevent the transmission of infections like HIV.

In general, autoclaving involves exposing the instruments to high temperature and pressure to kill microorganisms, including viruses like HIV. Standard autoclaving cycles often involve the following parameters:
• Temperature: Typically around 121°C (250°F)
• Pressure: Usually at around 15 psi
• Duration: Sterilization time can range from 15 to 30 minutes, depending on the type of load and the autoclave’s specifications.

It’s important to follow the manufacturer’s guidelines for your specific autoclave model and to adhere to the protocols established by the healthcare facility or organization. Different instruments might require slightly different cycles based on their size, material, and the presence of lumens or other features that can affect heat penetration.

Keep in mind that while autoclaving is highly effective at killing microorganisms, including HIV, it’s just one part of a comprehensive infection control strategy. Proper handling, cleaning, and preparation of instruments before autoclaving are also crucial to ensure successful sterilization.

Dry Heat Sterilization Duration for HIV Germs?
Dry heat is another method used for sterilizing medical instruments, including those that might come into contact with blood or body fluids, to prevent the transmission of infections like HIV. Unlike autoclaving, which uses moist heat, dry heat sterilization relies on high temperatures in the absence of moisture to kill microorganisms.
The duration required for dry heat sterilization can vary based on the specific type of instrument, the size of the load, and the temperature used. Generally, dry heat sterilization involves exposure to higher temperatures compared to autoclaving. Temperatures for dry heat sterilization often range from 160°C to 180°C (320°F to 356°F).

Commonly, dry heat sterilization cycles can last anywhere from 1 to 2 hours at these higher temperatures. The longer exposure time compensates for the lack of moisture, which is an efficient conductor of heat.

Plasma Gas Sterilization Duration for HIV Virus?

Plasma gas sterilization (PGS) is a sterilization method that uses plasma, a gas of ionized particles, to kill microorganisms. It is a very effective method of sterilization, and it can be used to sterilize a wide variety of materials, including medical devices, food, and pharmaceuticals.

The temperature required for plasma gas sterilization to kill HIV depends on the specific plasma gas system being used. However, most systems require a temperature of at least 120°C. Some systems may require higher temperatures, depending on the type of material being sterilized and the level of sterility required.
A study published in the journal “Applied and Environmental Microbiology” found that PGS was able to kill HIV in blood plasma with a temperature of 121°C and an exposure time of just 15 minutes.

It is important to note that the temperature required for plasma gas sterilization to kill HIV may vary depending on the specific strain of HIV. Therefore, it is important to follow the manufacturer’s instructions for the specific plasma gas system being used.

Here are some additional safety guidelines for plasma gas sterilization:
• Always wear personal protective equipment (PPE) when using a plasma gas sterilizer.
• Make sure the sterilizer is properly grounded.
• Do not operate the sterilizer if it is damaged.
• Dispose of any waste materials from the sterilizer according to the manufacturer’s instructions.

HIV Disinfection with Sodium Hypoclorite?
Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), which is a common component of household bleach, is effective at killing the HIV virus. Sodium hypochlorite is a powerful disinfectant that is used to kill a wide range of pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, and fungi. It works by disrupting the structure of microorganisms and preventing them from functioning properly.
To use sodium hypochlorite to disinfect surfaces or items that might be contaminated with HIV or other pathogens:
• Dilution: Household bleach typically contains sodium hypochlorite as its active ingredient. It’s important to dilute the bleach appropriately before use. A general guideline is to mix one part bleach with nine parts water (1:10 dilution) to create a disinfecting solution. This concentration is effective for killing most pathogens, including HIV.
• Application: Apply the diluted bleach solution to the surface or item that needs to be disinfected. Make sure the surface remains wet with the solution for a certain period of time.
• Contact Time: Allow the bleach solution to remain in contact with the surface or item for at least 5 to 10 minutes to ensure effective disinfection.
• Rinsing: After the appropriate contact time, rinse the surface or item thoroughly with clean water to remove any residual bleach.
• Ventilation: Ensure proper ventilation when using bleach, as its fumes can be strong. Avoid mixing bleach with other cleaning products, as this can produce hazardous fumes.
It’s important to note that while sodium hypochlorite is effective at killing HIV and other pathogens, it’s not the only method used in healthcare settings for infection control. Different disinfection methods and protocols are employed based on the specific situation, the nature of the items being disinfected, and the potential risks.

HIV Disinfection with Alchol?
Alcohol can effectively kill HIV. Alcohol-based disinfectants, such as isopropyl alcohol or ethanol, are known to be effective against a wide range of pathogens, including viruses like HIV. These disinfectants work by disrupting the lipid (fatty) envelope that surrounds the virus, causing it to break apart and become inactive.
To use alcohol-based disinfectants to effectively kill HIV:
• Select the Right Concentration: Alcohol-based disinfectants should contain at least 60% to 70% alcohol content to be effective against viruses and bacteria. This concentration range is typically recommended for disinfection purposes.
• Apply and Let Dry: Apply the alcohol-based disinfectant to the surface or object you wish to disinfect. Ensure that the surface remains wet with the disinfectant for a certain period of time.
• Contact Time: Allow the disinfectant to remain in contact with the surface for at least 30 seconds to a minute. This contact time is crucial for the disinfectant to effectively kill pathogens.
• Air Dry: After the appropriate contact time, allow the surface or object to air dry. Avoid wiping it dry immediately to give the disinfectant enough time to work.
• Proper Use: Follow the manufacturer’s instructions on the disinfectant label for proper use and safety precautions.

It’s important to note that while alcohol-based disinfectants are effective against HIV, they might not be suitable for disinfecting all surfaces or items. Some materials may be sensitive to alcohol and could be damaged by its use. Additionally, alcohol-based disinfectants are primarily meant for use on surfaces and not for disinfecting open wounds or mucous membranes.

Safety Measures:

I. All OT Doctors & staff must be well trained/experienced and could handle HIV surgeries ,being well protected with all safety precautions.
II. During HIV patient surgery there there should be people as less as possible.
III. From start of surgery till the end the staff doctors involved in HIV patient surgery should not unnecessarily leave OT as because there is blood and fluid spreaded on OT floor and when he/she would move outside OT there slippers would be infected by HIV virus and then it could raise the risk of HIV spread.
IV. During surgery the disposable cloth should be used like gown, drapes.
V. No extra things should be kept inside OT during the surgery like syringe,ETT,extra gloves which cant be recycled and sterilized again by which there would be minimum chances of HIV spread.
VI. According to WHO after surgery the things that are used in HIV patient surgery must be disposed in Biohazard bags and properly mention above bag HIV.
VII. Every Single on who is involved in Surgery must take proper bath with antibacterial soap/liquid and then change clothes after surgery.
VIII. If a healthcare worker sustains a prick or cut while performing surgery on an HIV-positive patient, it’s crucial for them to seek medical help promptly, ideally within the first 72 hours following the incident. This is because starting post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) as early as possible significantly enhances its effectiveness in preventing HIV infection.

Time consumed to reopen OT after HIV/MRSA/Fournier Gangrene patient Surgery
The minimum necessary number of people should be present. In addition to the usual theatres clothing the circulating nurse, anaesthetist and anaesthetic nurse/ODA should wear plastic aprons, disposable gloves and other appropriate PPE as necessary. East Lancashire Hospital NHS Trust – Policies & Procedures, Protocols, Guidelines ELHT/IC10 V6 2019 It is not necessary for anyone entering the operating room that does not go to the immediate vicinity of the operating table, to take any special precautions. Patients with infectious respiratory disease, such as open pulmonary tuberculosis or chickenpox must be recovered in theatre. Patients with open pulmonary multi-drug resistant tuberculosis must not be taken to theatre without prior discussion with the relevant specialist physician and the Infection Prevention & Control Team (IPCT). For patients with CJD or similar diseases refer to the CJD Policy. Prevention of Transmission of Creutzfeldt–Jakob Disease (CJD) and other Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSE). ELHT/ IC19 After the operation, all surfaces which may have become contaminated should be cleaned with Actichlor Plus 1000ppm. Surfaces contaminated with blood and blood stained body fluids should be cleaned, as per Spillage Policy ELHT/IC02, with 10,000ppm hypochlorite. Protective clothing i.e. gloves and aprons (masks if worn) should be removed before leaving the operating room and disposed of in a clinical waste bag and hands washed. All linen must be bagged in a red alginate bag and placed in a red laundry bag. Clinical waste for incineration must be put in orange bags. Fluid waste needs to go in Orange lidded rigid containers unless it is full blood then it should be an anatomical Red lidded container or treated with a solidifying gel. If waste has been solidified it can be bagged and put in an orange bag in small quantities due to the weight. Instruments must be returned to HSDU in the normal way, or decontaminated using local procedures (except instruments used on known and suspected CJD patients – contact IPCT).

As soon as theatre cleaning is complete, it can be used again; no time period needs to elapse.
Precision in Infection Control for High-Risk Surgeries In safeguarding patient well-being during intricate procedures like surgeries for conditions such as MRSA or Fournier’s Gangrene, meticulous infection control is paramount. A two-fold approach is imperative.

1. Initial Cleanup by the Infection Control Team: Envisioned as the first line of defense, the infection control team, comprising experts in hygiene protocols, spearheads the initial phase. Their meticulous involvement begins with the cleaning process, overseeing the diligent efforts of cleaning staff. Every nook and cranny of the operation theater (OT) is meticulously swept clean, laying the foundation for a sterile environment.

2. Technical Precision in Disinfection: This is where the technical prowess of trained personnel takes center stage. The OT undergoes thorough disinfection under the vigilant eyes of adept technicians. Their specialized skillset ensures that every element – from equipment to surfaces – is comprehensively disinfected. This stringent approach extends to cases involving complex surgical scenarios like HIV or MRSA infections, as well as conditions like Fournier’s Gangrene.

Prioritizing Efficacy Over Timelines: Unlike a rigid timeframe, the duration for OT readiness after surgery is intricately tied to the meticulousness of the disinfection process. The focus is on delivering an impeccably sanitized environment, a result of the collective efforts of the infection control team and technical experts. Consequently, the opening of the OT is a reflection of the uncompromising commitment to patient safety.

In this seamless partnership between infection control specialists and technical personnel, the OT’s transformation from a space of medical intervention to one of exemplary hygiene is the cornerstone of optimal patient care.


Important Note:
As I have many years of experience operating on HIV patients, I urge all staff involved in these procedures to be well-trained in infection prevention and control measures. Even a small mistake could lead to the transmission of the virus, which could have devastating consequences for the staff member and their family.

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